The causative agent of brucellosis is brucella. There are three types of cytotec - Brucella melitensis mainly affects goats and sheep, Brucella abortus causes brucellosis in cattle and Brucella suis - a disease in pigs. The most pathogenic for humans is Brucella melitensis. Brucella are microorganisms that look like short sticks, often spherical, ovoid in shape, small in size (0.3-3 microns). In the external environment, they are stable, tolerate low temperatures and even freezing.
The main sources of infection in humans are farm animals. Signs of brucellosis in animals are abortion (fetal stillbirth), metritis, mastitis, arthritis, in males - orchitis, etc. The fetus, its membranes, amniotic fluid, and milk contain a huge amount of cytotec online.
Epizootic outbreaks of brucellosis infection occur among animals, which can lead to mass abortions in the herd. Animals infected with brucellosis gradually (after 3-5 years) recover.
Brucella enters the human body through the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and skin. Infected mainly by people caring for animals, as well as those involved in the processing of animal raw materials.
Therefore, brucellosis in humans is epidemiologically associated with its spread and outbreaks among domestic animals. Most often, milkmaids, calves, shepherds, shepherds, veterinarians, livestock specialists get sick.

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Human infection occurs both through direct contact with sick animals, and through infected secretions, clothing, animal hair, and wool. Infection also occurs during the processing of meat raw materials, leather, wool, etc.

A person can also become infected by consuming raw dairy products, undercooked and fried animal meat, patients with brucellosis, feta cheese, koumiss, etc. With brucellosis, there is a clear seasonality of diseases, winter- spring rise associated with the period of lambing, calving, farrowing. However, brucellosis can be recorded throughout the year. The possibility of transmission of cytotec pills from a sick person to a healthy one is rejected, there is noand nosocomial brucellosis.

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Pathogenesis and Pathological Anatomy. Brucella, entering the human body, with the flow of lymph penetrate into the regional lymph nodes, causing the development of inflammatory changes in them (lymphadenitis). In the future, they come from the primary foci into the blood.

Brucellemia and toxemia set in. Brucella are carried with the blood stream throughout the body, new foci are created, from which subsequently brucella can repeatedly enter the bloodstream, causing new and new exacerbations and relapses of the disease. In patients, there is the formation of granulomas in the internal organs, inflammation of small blood vessels (vasculitis), lesions of the synovial membranes, mucous bags of the joints, tendon joints, fascia, nerve conductors (neuritis).

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  • Human susceptibility to brucellosis is high. After the illness, a sufficiently strong immunity is developed.
  • A characteristic feature of immunity in brucellosis is the possibility of creating cross-immunity with different types of Brucella.
  • So, people infected with bovine brucellosis acquire a fairly strong immunity to sheep brucellosis.
  • This property has been used to prepare a live attenuated brucella bovine vaccine.

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April, 2022
Clinical picture (symptoms and signs). Brucellosis is characterized by an abundance, variety and variability of clinical symptoms, individual for each patient.


May, 2022
According to the clinical classification adopted in the USSR, acute, subacute, chronic brucellosis, and residual manifestations of brucellosis are distinguished according to the severity and duration of the course of the disease.

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